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Nat Med. 2014 Jul;20(7):785-9. doi: 10.1038/nm.3590. Epub 2014 Jun 22.

Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye.

Author information

1
Polgenix, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
2
Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
3
1] Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA. [2] Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA. [3] Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.
4
1] Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA. [2] The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.
5
1] Polgenix, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. [2] Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Abstract

Two-photon excitation microscopy can image retinal molecular processes in vivo. Intrinsically fluorescent retinyl esters in subcellular structures called retinosomes are an integral part of the visual chromophore regeneration pathway. Fluorescent condensation products of all-trans-retinal accumulate in the eye with age and are also associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we report repetitive, dynamic imaging of these compounds in live mice through the pupil of the eye. By leveraging advanced adaptive optics, we developed a data acquisition algorithm that permitted the identification of retinosomes and condensation products in the retinal pigment epithelium by their characteristic localization, spectral properties and absence in genetically modified or drug-treated mice. This imaging approach has the potential to detect early molecular changes in retinoid metabolism that trigger light- and AMD-induced retinal defects and to assess the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions.

PMID:
24952647
PMCID:
PMC4087080
DOI:
10.1038/nm.3590
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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