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J Card Fail. 2014 Sep;20(9):650-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2014.06.355. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

Exercise ventilatory parameters for the diagnosis of reactive pulmonary hypertension in patients with heart failure.

Author information

1
University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK. Electronic address: sern.lim@uhb.nhs.uk.
2
University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Reactive pulmonary hypertension (PH) in left heart disease is associated with poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of exercise ventilatory parameters on cardiopulmonary exercise testing for the diagnosis of reactive PH in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction.

METHODS:

This was a single-center, retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of 131 patients with HF who underwent in-hospital assessment for heart transplantation. Pulmonary hemodynamics was assessed by direct cardiac catheterization. Minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope, partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) changes on exercise, oxygen pulse, and exercise oscillatory ventilation were determined from cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

RESULTS:

Sixty-one of 131 consecutive patients had reactive PH. VE/VCO2 slope (>41), change in ETCO2 on exercise (<1.2 mm Hg) and exercise oscillatory ventilation were independently associated with reactive PH. These 3 parameters in combination produced 3 possible diagnostic scenarios: (1) if all 3 criteria ("if all") were present, (2) if any 2 of the 3 criteria ("2 of 3") were present, and (3) if any of the criteria ("if any") were present. The corresponding positive/negative likelihood ratios for reactive PH if all 3 criteria were present were 3.73/0.83, if 2 of the 3 criteria were present were 2.19/0.45, and if any of the 3 criteria were present were 1.75/0.11. The posttest probability increased from 46% to 76% ("if all" present) and reduced to 9% (if none of the criteria was present).

CONCLUSION:

Ventilatory parameters on cardiopulmonary exercise test are associated with reactive PH in patients with HF. The absence of abnormalities in these 3 ventilatory parameters can effectively exclude reactive PH in patients with HF and poor ejection fraction.

KEYWORDS:

Heart failure; pulmonary hypertension

PMID:
24951933
DOI:
10.1016/j.cardfail.2014.06.355
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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