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J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(6):573-8. doi: 10.1007/s12603-014-0010-x.

Fruit and vegetable consumption, ethnicity and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease.

Author information

1
Sangita Sharma, PhD, Endowed Chair in Aboriginal Health, Professor of Aboriginal and Global Health, University of Alberta, Department of Medicine, 5-10 University Terrace, 8303 112 Street Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2T4, Canada. Tel: 780 492 3214; Fax: 780 492 3018. Email: gita.sharma@ualberta.ca.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Mortality rates from ischemic heart disease vary among ethnic groups. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease, but ethnic-specific data are limited.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study.

SETTING:

Hawaii and Los Angeles County, between 1993 and 1996.

PARTICIPANTS:

These analyses included 164,617 adults age 45 to 75, representing five ethnic groups who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Dietary data were collected at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire and fatal ischemic heart disease cases were identified up to December 31, 2001. Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease were examined using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS:

The associations between fruit and vegetable intake and fatal ischemic heart disease were similar among the five ethnic groups. When data for the ethnic groups were combined, higher vegetable intake was associated with a protective effect against ischemic heart disease in men with all intake levels above 3.4 servings per day (over 6.6 servings per day: hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.92). Inconsistent results were observed for women, where the protective association was observed only at mid-level vegetable intake levels, but not among women with the highest level of vegetable intake. There was no evidence of an association for fruit intake.

CONCLUSIONS:

Associations between fruit and vegetable intake and fatal IHD do not appear to vary among ethnic groups. Additional research is needed to clarify associations for fruit versus vegetable intake and impact on cardiovascular outcomes.

PMID:
24950146
PMCID:
PMC5025250
DOI:
10.1007/s12603-014-0010-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Sangita Sharma declares she has no conflict of interest. Shelly Vik declares she has no conflict of interest. Laurence Kolonel declares he has no conflict of interest. The work under consideration for publication: Sangita Sharma discloses that she received salary from Dr. Kolonel’s grant from the National Institutes of Health. Relevant financial activities outside the submitted work: Sangita Sharma received grant funding from the United States Department of Agriculture and National Institutes of Health during the 36 months prior to submission of this paper. The work under consideration for publication: Laurence Kolonel discloses that this work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association of Hawaii, and the United States Department of Agriculture.

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