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J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42 Suppl 3:S153-62. doi: 10.3233/JAD-132660.

Golgi apparatus and protein trafficking in Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Aristotelian University, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degeneration of the brain, inducing memory decline, inability in learning, and behavioral alterations, resulting progressively in a marked deterioration of all mental activities and eventually a vegetative state. The main causative factor, however, is still unclear. The implication of amyloid-β, AβPP, tau protein, the selective loss of neurons, the alteration of the synapses, the cytoskeletal changes, and the morphological alterations of the brain capillaries contribute substantially to the pathogenetic profile of the disease, without sufficiently enlightening the initial steps of the pathological procedures. The ultrastructure of the neuronal organelles as well as histochemical studies revealed substantial alterations, primarily concerning mitochondria. In this study, the morphological and morphometric alterations of the Golgi apparatus (GA) are described in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in twenty AD brains, studied with electron microscopy. As it is well established, GA has a very important role to play in many procedures such as glycosylation, sulfation, and proteolysis of protein systems, which are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum of nerve cells and glia. GA may also play a crucial role in protein trafficking and in misfolding of protein aggregates. In addition, the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is closely related with the pathology of GA. In AD cases, described in this study, an obvious fragmentation of the cisternae of GA was observed in the Purkinje cells of the vermis and the cerebellar hemispheres. This alteration of GA may be associated with alterations of microtubules, impaired protein trafficking, and dendritic, spinal, and synaptic pathology, since protein trafficking plays an essential role in the three dimensional organization of the dendritic arbor and in the integrity of the synaptic components.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; Golgi apparatus; electron microscopy; proteins trafficking

PMID:
24946873
DOI:
10.3233/JAD-132660
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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