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Acta Trop. 2014 Oct;138:28-37. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.06.004. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

Author information

1
The Second People's Hospital of Panyu, Panyu, Guangzhou 511430, Guangdong Province, PR China; Institute of Gallbladder Disease of Panyu, Guangzhou 511430, Guangdong Province, PR China. Electronic address: fqj1958@163.com.
2
The Sixth People's Hospital of Nansha, Nansha, Guangzhou 511470, Guangdong Province, PR China.
3
Institute of Gallbladder Disease of Panyu, Guangzhou 511430, Guangdong Province, PR China; The Sixth People's Hospital of Nansha, Nansha, Guangzhou 511470, Guangdong Province, PR China.

Abstract

Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection.

KEYWORDS:

Aragonite type calcium carbonate; Calcite type calcium carbonate; Calcium carbonate stone; Clonorchis sinensis; Scanning electron microscopy

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