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Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;18(3):379-85. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.131191.

Knowledge and awareness of diabetes in urban and rural India: The Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (Phase I): Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes 4.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Diabetology, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation and Dr.Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, India.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Diabetology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
3
Department of Epidemiology and Diabetology, Lilavati Hospital, Mumbai, India.
4
Department of Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur, India.
5
Department of Diabetology, Diabetes Care Center, Ranchi, India.
6
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India.
7
Department of Non Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.
8
Department of Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, New Delhi, India.
9
Department of Endocrinology, Jawaharlal Institute of Post- Graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Representative data on knowledge and awareness about diabetes is scarce in India and is extremely important to plan public health policies aimed at preventing and controlling diabetes.

AIM:

The aim of the following study is to assess awareness and knowledge about diabetes in the general population, as well as in individuals with diabetes in four selected regions of India.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The study subjects were drawn from a representative sample of four geographical regions of India, Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand and Maharashtra representing North, South, East and West and covering a population of 213 million. A total of 16,607 individuals (5112 urban and 11,495 rural) aged ≥20 years were selected from 188 urban and 175 rural areas. Awareness of diabetes and knowledge of causative factors and complications of diabetes were assessed using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire in 14,274 individuals (response rate, 86.0%), which included 480 self-reported diabetic subjects.

RESULTS:

Only 43.2% (6160/14,274) of the overall study population had heard about a condition called diabetes. Overall urban residents had higher awareness rates (58.4%) compared to rural residents (36.8%) (P < 0.001). About 46.7% of males and 39.6% of females reported that they knew about a condition called diabetes (P < 0.001). Of the general population, 41.5% (5726/13,794) knew about a condition called diabetes. Among them, 80.7% (4620/5726) knew that the prevalence of diabetes was increasing, whereas among diabetic subjects, it was 93.0% (448/480). Among the general and diabetic population, 56.3% and 63.4% respectively, were aware that diabetes could be prevented. Regarding complications, 51.5% of the general population and 72.7% diabetic population knew that diabetes could affect other organs. Based on a composite knowledge score to assess knowledge among the general population, Tamil Nadu had the highest (31.7) and Jharkhand the lowest score (16.3). However among self-reported diabetic subjects, Maharashtra had the highest (70.1) and Tamil Nadu, the lowest score (56.5).

CONCLUSION:

Knowledge and awareness about diabetes in India, particularly in rural areas, is poor. This underscores the need for conducting large scale diabetes awareness and education programs.

KEYWORDS:

Asian Indians; India; Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes; South Asians; awareness; diabetes; knowledge; rural; urban

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