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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Nov;21(21):12472-8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3186-z. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

Effects of Cutrine-Plus® algaecide and predators on wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpole survival and growth.

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Department of Biology, Denison University, Granville, OH, 43023, USA.


Copper contamination is increasing in many aquatic ecosystems. One mode by which copper can be introduced into aquatic ecosystems is as an algaecide, such as Cutrine-Plus®. Using a mesocosm experiment, we examined the effects of Cutrine-Plus® on wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles. In addition, we examined how the presence of a nonnative predator the Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) may interact with exposure to Cutrine-Plus®. Exposure to our low and high Cutrine-Plus® treatments had a strong negative effect on the wood frog tadpoles, and survivorship was greatly decreased in the low treatment, and no tadpoles survived in the high treatment. Additionally, the tadpoles that survived the low treatment were significantly smaller than those in the control treatment. Mosquitofish had no effect on the survivorship or growth of wood frog tadpoles, and mosquitofish presence did not have a significant interaction with the Cutrine-Plus® treatments. Cutrine-Plus® clearly had a negative effect on wood frog tadpoles at the concentrations used in our experiment, which were at and below the label-recommended dosages, suggesting that the use of Cutrine-Plus® in natural ponds may have negative consequences for wood frog populations and possibly other amphibians.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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