Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015;55(14):1968-91. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2014.912199.

Efficacy of Multivitamin/mineral Supplementation to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials.

Author information

1
a Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University , Corvallis , Oregon , USA.

Abstract

We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were examined. The majority of scientific studies investigating the use of MVM supplements in chronic disease risk reduction reported no significant effect. However, the largest and longest RCT of MVM supplements conducted to date, the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS II), found a modest and significant reduction in total and epithelial cancer incidence in male physicians, consistent with the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. In addition, PHS II found a modest and significant reduction in the incidence of nuclear cataract, in agreement with several other RCTs and observational, prospective cohort studies. The effects of MVM use on other subtypes of cataract and age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. Neither RCTs nor prospective cohort studies are without their limitations. The placebo-controlled trial design of RCTs may be inadequate for nutrient interventions, and residual confounding, measurement error, and the possibility of reverse causality are inherent to any observational study. National surveys show that micronutrient inadequacies are widespread in the US and that dietary supplements, of which MVMs are the most common type, help fulfill micronutrient requirements in adults and children.

KEYWORDS:

Multivitamin/mineral; micronutrient inadequacies; prospective cohort studies; randomized controlled trials; supplement, chronic disease risk

PMID:
24941429
DOI:
10.1080/10408398.2014.912199
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center