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Arch Dis Child. 2014 Nov;99(11):998-1003. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2013-305509. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Severe manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy before 2 years of age.

Author information

1
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
2
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected infants reduces mortality and opportunistic infections including tuberculosis (TB). However, young HIV-infected children remain at high risk of TB disease following mycobacterial infection. We document the spectrum of TB disease in HIV-infected children <2 years of age on ART.

METHODS:

Retrospective cohort study; records of children <2 years of age initiating routine ART at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, January 2003-December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data at ART initiation (baseline) and TB episodes after ART initiation, to June 2012, were recorded. TB immune reconstitution syndrome (TB-IRIS) and incident TB were defined as TB diagnosed within 3 months, and >3 months after, ART initiation respectively. Baseline characteristics were compared in children with TB-IRIS and those with incident TB.

RESULTS:

In 494 children, median follow-up time on ART was 10.7 months. Fifty-five TB treatment episodes occurred after ART initiation: 23 (42%) TB-IRIS (incidence 21.9/100 person years (py)) and 32 (58%) incident TB (incidence 3.9/100 py). Children with TB-IRIS and those with incident TB had similar baseline characteristics. Eight of 10 cases of extrapulmonary TB were severe: 4 IRIS (2 meningitis, 1 disseminated, 1 pericarditis) and 4 incident cases (1 each miliary, meningitis, pericarditis and spinal). Fifty-one children (10%) died (mortality rate 5.96/100 py). Starting ART at <1 year of age approached significance as a risk factor for TB-IRIS (adjusted OR (AOR) 8.64, p=0.06); weight-for-age Z score <-2 predicted death (AOR 6.37, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Severe TB manifestations were observed among young HIV-infected children on ART.

KEYWORDS:

Antiretroviral Therapy; HIV; Infants; Tuberculosis

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