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J Water Health. 2014 Jun;12(2):288-300. doi: 10.2166/wh.2013.185.

Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits.

Author information

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Virginia, PO Box 400742, 351 McCormick Road, Thornton Hall, Rm. B228, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Bliss Hall 213, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.
3
Department of Public Health Sciences, Public Health Sciences Hospital West, University of Virginia, PO Box 800717, 3181, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
4
Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Department of Chemistry, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Limpopo Province, South Africa.
5
Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, PO Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA, USA E-mail: rd8v@virginia.edu.

Abstract

Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). Median reduction of total coliform bacteria was 100% at enrollment and final collection. CWFs are an acceptable technology that can significantly improve the quality of household water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa.

PMID:
24937223
DOI:
10.2166/wh.2013.185
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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