Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Schizophr Bull. 2014 Jul;40 Suppl 4:S275-84. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbu018.

Better than mermaids and stray dogs? Subtyping auditory verbal hallucinations and its implications for research and practice.

Author information

1
Department of Cognitive Science, ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and Its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; Department of Psychology, Durham University, Durham, UK; s.mccarthyjones@gmail.com.
2
Brain and Psychological Sciences Centre, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia; Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia;
3
School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Sussex, UK; Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Sussex, UK;
4
Early Intervention in Psychosis, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS FT, Newcastle, UK;
5
Department of Psychology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL;
6
Centre for Medical Humanities, Durham University, Durham, UK;
7
Division of Psychology & Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK;
8
Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR;
9
Department of Psychology, Durham University, Durham, UK;
10
Department of Psychiatry, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK;
11
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

The phenomenological diversity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is not currently accounted for by any model based around a single mechanism. This has led to the proposal that there may be distinct AVH subtypes, which each possess unique (as well as shared) underpinning mechanisms. This could have important implications both for research design and clinical interventions because different subtypes may be responsive to different types of treatment. This article explores how AVH subtypes may be identified at the levels of phenomenology, cognition, neurology, etiology, treatment response, diagnosis, and voice hearer's own interpretations. Five subtypes are proposed; hypervigilance, autobiographical memory (subdivided into dissociative and nondissociative), inner speech (subdivided into obsessional, own thought, and novel), epileptic and deafferentation. We suggest other facets of AVH, including negative content and form (eg, commands), may be best treated as dimensional constructs that vary across subtypes. After considering the limitations and challenges of AVH subtyping, we highlight future research directions, including the need for a subtype assessment tool.

KEYWORDS:

AVH; hearing voices; phenomenology; schizophrenia; symptom classification; trauma

PMID:
24936087
PMCID:
PMC4141311
DOI:
10.1093/schbul/sbu018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center