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Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Nov;16(11):1436-45. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu095. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Smoking reductions and increased self-efficacy in a randomized controlled trial of smoking abstinence-contingent incentives in residential substance abuse treatment patients.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT salessi@uchc.edu.
2
Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) experience increased smoking-related morbidity and mortality but severely compromised smoking treatment benefits. Residential SUD treatment settings may be particularly positioned to target smoking, with ever-increasing smoking bans and culture shifts, but most smokers continue smoking. This study examined the effects of contingency management (CM) for increasing smoking abstinence in residential patients.

METHODS:

Smokers interested in quitting were recruited from a residential SUD program for men and were randomized to frequent smoking monitoring with behavioral support (monitoring; n = 21) or that plus smoking abstinence-contingent (expired carbon monoxide [CO] ≤ 6 ppm; urinary cotinine ≤ 30ng/ml) incentives (CM, n = 24) for 4 weeks. After setting a quit date, procedures included daily behavioral support and smoking self-reports, 2 CO samples (a.m./p.m.) Monday through Friday, and cotinine tests on Mondays. CM participants received escalating draws for prizes ($1, $20, and $100 values) for negative tests; positive and missed samples reset draws. Follow-ups involved samples, self-reported smoking, and self-efficacy (weeks 4, 8, 12, and 24).

RESULTS:

Percent days CO-negative was higher with CM (median [interquartile range] 51.7% [62.8%]) compared to monitoring (0% [32.1%]) (p = .002). Cigarettes per day declined and point-prevalence abstinence increased through follow-up (p < .01), without significant group by time effects (p > .05). Abstinence self-efficacy increased overall during the intervention and more with CM compared to monitoring and was associated with abstinence across conditions through follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

CM improved some measures of response to smoking treatment in residential SUD patients.

PMID:
24935755
PMCID:
PMC4271087
DOI:
10.1093/ntr/ntu095
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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