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Prog Orthod. 2014 Apr 16;15(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s40510-014-0027-z.

Social impairment of individuals suffering from different types of chronic orofacial pain.

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Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli 80131, Italy.



The daily life of patients suffering from orofacial pain is considerably impaired as compared to healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different categories of orofacial pain on the habitual life of adult individuals.


Seven hundred eighty-one individuals with orofacial pain were recruited from an initial sample of 1,058 patients. All the individuals were allocated to groups according to their diagnosis: myofascial pain (group A, 676 subjects, 525 females and 151 males; mean age ± SD = 35.2 ± 12.6), migraine (group B, 39 subjects, 29 females and 10 males; mean age ± SD 36.0 ± 10.7), and both myofascial pain and migraine (group C, 66 subjects, 56 females and 10 males, mean age ± SD = 35.6 ± 10.8). Characteristic pain intensity (CPI), disability days (DD), disability score (DS), and graded chronic pain intensity (GCPS) were calculated according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis II. Depression and somatization (nonspecific physical symptoms) scores were also calculated.


A significant association between groups and GCPS categories was found (p < 0.0001). Post hoc tests showed a significant difference between groups A and B and between A and C, but not between B and C. In group A, the most frequent GCPS score was grade II. The most frequent GCPS score in groups B and C was grade III, indicating a moderate limiting impairment. This score was more frequent in group B (41%) than in the other groups (group A = 20.6%, group C = 34.8%). GCPS grade IV was more frequent in group C (19.7%) than in the other groups. Group C had significantly higher scores for nonspecific physical symptoms than group A (p < 0.05).


Myofascial pain and migraine sensibly affect the common daily life of adult individuals. The comorbidity of both conditions determines a major impairment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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