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Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Nov;65(7):893-8. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2014.917151. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

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Department of Urology, Gaoyou People's Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University , Yangzhou, Jiangsu , China and.


Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between citrus fruit and bladder cancer risk; however, the results are inconsistent. To assess these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis of currently available studies. We identified relevant articles by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We calculated the summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using a random effect model. We included eight case-control studies and six cohort studies in the meta-analysis. There was a significant inverse association between citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk in all pooled studies (RR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and case-control studies (RR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.92), but not in the cohort studies (RR: 0.96; 95% CI, 0.87-1.07). Our results suggest that citrus fruit intake is related to decreased bladder cancer risk. Subsequent well-designed, large prospective studies are needed to obtain better understanding of this relationship.


Bladder cancer; citrus fruits; meta-analysis; risk

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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