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Nat Commun. 2014 Jun 13;5:4052. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5052.

A barcode of organellar genome polymorphisms identifies the geographic origin of Plasmodium falciparum strains.

Author information

1
Immunology and Infection Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK.
2
Malaria Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.
3
1] Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA [2] International Center for Medical Research and Training, Carerra 125, Cali, Colombia.
4
1] College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre 3, Malawi [2] Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre 30096 BT3, Malawi [3] Malaria Capacity Development Consortium, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.
5
Medical Research Council Laboratories (UK), Fajara PO Box 273, The Gambia.
6
1] Immunology and Infection Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK [2] Medical Research Council Laboratories (UK), Fajara PO Box 273, The Gambia.
7
1] KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi 80108, Kenya [2] Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72074, Germany.
8
Department of Rural Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Divine Word University, Madang PO Box 483, Papua New Guinea.
9
Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Sant, Bobo-Dioulasso BP 545, Burkina Faso.
10
1] Malaria Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK [2] Malaria Research and Training Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry, University of Bamako, Bamako BP1805, Mali.
11
Malaria Research and Training Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry, University of Bamako, Bamako BP1805, Mali.
12
1] Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK [2] Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Mae Sot 63110, Thailand.
13
Pathogen Genomics Laboratory, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
14
Malaria Pathogenesis and Human Immunity Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Abstract

Malaria is a major public health problem that is actively being addressed in a global eradication campaign. Increased population mobility through international air travel has elevated the risk of re-introducing parasites to elimination areas and dispersing drug-resistant parasites to new regions. A simple genetic marker that quickly and accurately identifies the geographic origin of infections would be a valuable public health tool for locating the source of imported outbreaks. Here we analyse the mitochondrion and apicoplast genomes of 711 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from 14 countries, and find evidence that they are non-recombining and co-inherited. The high degree of linkage produces a panel of relatively few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that is geographically informative. We design a 23-SNP barcode that is highly predictive (~92%) and easily adapted to aid case management in the field and survey parasite migration worldwide.

PMID:
24923250
PMCID:
PMC4082634
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms5052
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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