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Cell Host Microbe. 2014 Jun 11;15(6):668-80. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.05.015.

Advances in norovirus biology.

Author information

1
College of Medicine, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
3
Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK.
4
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
5
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address: virgin@wustl.edu.

Abstract

Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trials of vaccines consisting of nonreplicating virus-like particles have shown promise. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and discuss controversies in the field, which is rapidly progressing toward generation of antiviral agents and increasingly effective vaccines.

PMID:
24922570
PMCID:
PMC4113907
DOI:
10.1016/j.chom.2014.05.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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