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Nature. 2014 Jun 19;510(7505):356-62. doi: 10.1038/nature13308. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.

Author information

1
1] Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Private bag X20, Pretoria 0028, South Africa [2] Genomics Research Institute (GRI), University of Pretoria, Private bag X20, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.
2
1] Laboratório de Genética Vegetal, EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, EPQB Final W5 Norte, 70770-917 Brasília, Brazil [2] Programa de Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia - Universidade Católica de Brasília SGAN 916, 70790-160 Brasília, Brazil.
3
1] US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [2] Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA.
4
US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA.
5
HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, 601 Genome Way, Huntsville, Alabama 35801, USA.
6
Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Private bag X20, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.
7
Laboratório de Bioinformática, EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, EPQB Final W5 Norte, 70770-917 Brasília, Brazil.
8
Laboratório de Genética Vegetal, EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, EPQB Final W5 Norte, 70770-917 Brasília, Brazil.
9
Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA.
10
Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics (VIB), Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
11
INRA/UBP UMR 1095, 5 Avenue de Beaulieu, 63100 Clermont Ferrand, France.
12
Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, UMR 5546, Université Toulouse III, UPS, CNRS, BP 42617, 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France.
13
1] Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Private bag X20, Pretoria 0028, South Africa [2] Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 3529-6270 University Blvd, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada.
14
Evolutionary Bioinformatics, Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149, Muenster, Germany.
15
1] Evolutionary Bioinformatics, Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149, Muenster, Germany [2] Department of Bioinformatics, Institute for Computer Science, University of Duesseldorf, Universitätsstrasse 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.
16
Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.
17
1] Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, 2082-Cordley Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA [2] Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.
18
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, 2082-Cordley Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.
19
Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.
20
1] Laboratório de Biologia Evolutiva Teórica e Aplicada, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Av. Prof. Rodolpho Paulo Rocco, 21949900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [2] Departamento de Biotecnologia, Escola de Engenharia de Lorena-Universidade de São Paulo (EEL-USP), CP116, 12602-810, Lorena-SP, Brazil [3] Laboratório de Genética Molecular Vegetal (LGMV), Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Av. Prof. Rodolpho Paulo Rocco, 21949900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
21
Laboratório de Genética Molecular Vegetal (LGMV), Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Av. Prof. Rodolpho Paulo Rocco, 21949900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
22
Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia.
23
1] Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, UMR 5546, Université Toulouse III, UPS, CNRS, BP 42617, 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France [2] IICT/MNE; Palácio Burnay - Rua da Junqueira, 30, 1349-007 Lisboa, Portugal [3] IBET/ITQB, Av. República, Quinta do Marquês, 2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal.
24
1] IICT/MNE; Palácio Burnay - Rua da Junqueira, 30, 1349-007 Lisboa, Portugal [2] IBET/ITQB, Av. República, Quinta do Marquês, 2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal.
25
Arizona Genomics Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
26
Dep. de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-000, Brazil.
27
Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Brazil.
28
Science and Conservation Division, Department of Parks and Wildlife, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, Western Australia 6983, Australia.
29
GYDLE, 1363 av. Maguire, suite 301, Québec, Quebec G1T 1Z2, Canada.
30
Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victorian Government, Melbourne, Victoria 3085, Australia.
31
Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.
32
School of Biological Sciences and National Centre for Future Forest Industries, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.
33
1] School of Biological Sciences and National Centre for Future Forest Industries, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia [2] Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland 4558, Australia.
34
1] Genomics Research Institute (GRI), University of Pretoria, Private bag X20, Pretoria 0028, South Africa [2] Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Private bag X20, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.
35
Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília 70910-900, Brazil.
36
1] Genomics Research Institute (GRI), University of Pretoria, Private bag X20, Pretoria 0028, South Africa [2] Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics (VIB), Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
37
1] US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [2] HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, 601 Genome Way, Huntsville, Alabama 35801, USA.

Abstract

Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

PMID:
24919147
DOI:
10.1038/nature13308
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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