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Curr Eye Res. 2015 Feb;40(2):226-33. doi: 10.3109/02713683.2014.925933. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

Estrogen signalling in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland , Kuopio , Finland .


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial eye disease that is associated with aging, family history, smoking, obesity, cataract surgery, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and unhealthy diet. Gender has commonly been classified as a weak or inconsistent risk factor for AMD. This disease is characterized by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris, which secondarily lead to damage and death of photoreceptor cells and central visual loss. Pathogenesis of AMD involves constant oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and increased accumulation of lipofuscin and drusen. Estrogen has both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity and it regulates signaling pathways that are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. In this review, we discuss potential cellular signaling targets of estrogen in retinal cells and AMD pathology.


Degeneration; estrogen; inflammation; macula; oxidative stress; retina

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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