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Atherosclerosis. 2014 Aug;235(2):310-7. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.04.028. Epub 2014 May 24.

Ox-LDL induces endothelial cell apoptosis via the LOX-1-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Xiangya Road 87#, Changsha 410008, China.
2
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.
3
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Xiangya Road 87#, Changsha 410008, China. Electronic address: xyzgg2006@sina.com.
4
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China. Electronic address: huchangping2001@yahoo.com.cn.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the effect of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptosis and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathway.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with 50, 100, or 200 μg/ml ox-LDL and cultured for 12, 24, or 48 h for concentration- and time-dependent studies. Cells were transfected with LOX-1 or Nox-4 shRNAs, and target proteins were inhibited with the corresponding antibodies for mechanistic studies. Active proteins and mRNAs were analyzed by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin and Hoechst staining assays. Ox-LDL induced both apoptosis and protein expression of LOX-1 and Nox-4 through activation of ER stress sensors IRE1 and PERK, and nuclear translocation of ATF6 and their subsequent pathways were indicated by JNK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 phosphorylation, XBP-1, and chaperone GRP78 expression; up-regulation of proapoptotic proteins CHOP and Bcl-2; and caspase-12 activity. LOX-1 gene silencing and treatment with an anti-LOX-1 antibody attenuated the effects of ox-LDL. Pretreatment with irestatin 9389, salubrinal, or AEBSF also blocked ox-LDL-induced expression of CHOP and Bcl-2 and activation of caspase-12 activity, leading to an attenuation of endothelial cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Nox-4 siRNA attenuated the up-regulated expression of GRP78, PERK, IRE1, and XBP-1 to reduce ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

LOX-1 plays a critical role in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis via the ER stress pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Endothelial cells; LOX-1; Nox-4

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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