Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Int Rev Immunol. 2014 Nov-Dec;33(6):443-53. doi: 10.3109/08830185.2014.921164. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

TLR cross-talk confers specificity to innate immunity.

Author information

1
1NUS graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Abstract

Cross-talk within the innate immune pathways is highly complex and contains many unknowns. Here, we discuss the different combinations of PAMPs, together with the sequence, order, and dosage of consecutive PAMP challenges, which determine the nature of the immune response by macrophages. The engagement of different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands leads to quantitatively and qualitatively unique cytokine production, showing that TLR pathway crosstalk enables the innate immune system to orchestrate immediate local and global responses. It is likely that multiple pathways are involved in the regulation of cytokine synergy, including many that have yet to be discovered.

KEYWORDS:

cytokines; macrophage; pathogen recognition; signaling cross-talk; toll-like receptors

PMID:
24911430
PMCID:
PMC4266099
DOI:
10.3109/08830185.2014.921164
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center