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Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2015 Jan;36(1):3-23. doi: 10.1038/aps.2014.18. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

Androgen receptor: structure, role in prostate cancer and drug discovery.

Author information

1
1] Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, National University Hospital, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore [2] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA.
2
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, National University Hospital, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
3
1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA [2] VARI/SIMM Center, CAS-Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.
4
Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA.

Abstract

Androgens and androgen receptors (AR) play a pivotal role in expression of the male phenotype. Several diseases, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and prostate cancer, are associated with alterations in AR functions. Indeed, androgen blockade by drugs that prevent the production of androgens and/or block the action of the AR inhibits prostate cancer growth. However, resistance to these drugs often occurs after 2-3 years as the patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In CRPC, a functional AR remains a key regulator. Early studies focused on the functional domains of the AR and its crucial role in the pathology. The elucidation of the structures of the AR DNA binding domain (DBD) and ligand binding domain (LBD) provides a new framework for understanding the functions of this receptor and leads to the development of rational drug design for the treatment of prostate cancer. An overview of androgen receptor structure and activity, its actions in prostate cancer, and how structural information and high-throughput screening have been or can be used for drug discovery are provided herein.

PMID:
24909511
PMCID:
PMC4571323
DOI:
10.1038/aps.2014.18
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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