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J Control Release. 2014 Sep 28;190:182-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.05.058. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Controlled delivery of inhaled therapeutic agents.

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RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.


There is increasing interest in the delivery of drugs to the lungs to treat a variety of diseases. The spatial and temporal influence of deposition and clearance mechanisms on the fate of inhaled materials are important factors in the control of delivery of therapeutic agents to the lungs. Balancing anatomical and physiological considerations with pharmaceutical properties dictates the therapeutic potential of any pharmacological and immunological strategy. A brief introduction of aerosol properties and inhaler technology is followed by considerations of in vitro and in vivo disposition in the context of controlled drug release for achieving anatomical, physiological and therapeutic targeting. Comprehensive assessment of drug delivery to, and disposition from, the lungs is required if controlled and targeted strategies are to be successful.


Aerosols; Pulmonary delivery; Spatial control; Temporal control

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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