Send to

Choose Destination
Eukaryot Cell. 2014 Dec;13(12):1484-93. doi: 10.1128/EC.00111-14. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans extracellular vesicles with the cell wall.

Author information

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA


Cryptococcus neoformans produces extracellular vesicles containing a variety of cargo, including virulence factors. To become extracellular, these vesicles not only must be released from the plasma membrane but also must pass through the dense matrix of the cell wall. The greatest unknown in the area of fungal vesicles is the mechanism by which these vesicles are released to the extracellular space given the presence of the fungal cell wall. Here we used electron microscopy techniques to image the interactions of vesicles with the cell wall. Our goal was to define the ultrastructural morphology of the process to gain insights into the mechanisms involved. We describe single and multiple vesicle-leaving events, which we hypothesized were due to plasma membrane and multivesicular body vesicle origins, respectively. We further utilized melanized cells to "trap" vesicles and visualize those passing through the cell wall. Vesicle size differed depending on whether vesicles left the cytoplasm in single versus multiple release events. Furthermore, we analyzed different vesicle populations for vesicle dimensions and protein composition. Proteomic analysis tripled the number of proteins known to be associated with vesicles. Despite separation of vesicles into batches differing in size, we did not identify major differences in protein composition. In summary, our results indicate that vesicles are generated by more than one mechanism, that vesicles exit the cell by traversing the cell wall, and that vesicle populations exist as a continuum with regard to size and protein composition.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center