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Cell. 2014 Jun 5;157(6):1262-78. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.010.

Development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome engineering.

Author information

  • 1Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  • 2Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA.
  • 3Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address: zhang@broadinstitute.org.

Abstract

Recent advances in genome engineering technologies based on the CRISPR-associated RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 are enabling the systematic interrogation of mammalian genome function. Analogous to the search function in modern word processors, Cas9 can be guided to specific locations within complex genomes by a short RNA search string. Using this system, DNA sequences within the endogenous genome and their functional outputs are now easily edited or modulated in virtually any organism of choice. Cas9-mediated genetic perturbation is simple and scalable, empowering researchers to elucidate the functional organization of the genome at the systems level and establish causal linkages between genetic variations and biological phenotypes. In this Review, we describe the development and applications of Cas9 for a variety of research or translational applications while highlighting challenges as well as future directions. Derived from a remarkable microbial defense system, Cas9 is driving innovative applications from basic biology to biotechnology and medicine.

PMID:
24906146
PMCID:
PMC4343198
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.010
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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