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Arch Med Sci. 2014 May 12;10(2):336-44. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2014.42587. Epub 2014 May 13.

Dietary and nutraceutical approach to type 2 diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia, Italy ; Center for the Study of Endocrine-Metabolic Pathophysiology and Clinical Research, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
2
Cardiology Department of the School of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.
3
Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Abstract

Nutritional medical treatment is the first step to achieve adequate glycemic control and prevent diabetic complications. Lifestyle changes include moderate weight loss (7%) and regular physical activity (150 min/week). The appropriate diet composition is < 30% total fat, < 10% saturated fats, > 15 g/1000 kcal fiber, half soluble, 45-60% of carbohydrates with amoderate intake of sugar (50 g/day) and protein intake of 15-20% of the total calories a day. Patients need to limit the intake of saturated fats to < 7% of the daily calorie intake. Monounsaturated fatty acids such as olive oil and other vegetable oils are recommended. L-carnitine, α-lipoic acid, berberine and ω-3 fatty acids can be useful supplements.

KEYWORDS:

L-carnitine; berberine; diabetes; diet; ω-3

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