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J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:149185. doi: 10.1155/2014/149185. Epub 2014 May 13.

Chronic inflammation and cytokines in the tumor microenvironment.

Author information

1
Disciplinary Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Independencia 1027, 8380453 Santiago, Chile.
2
Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

Abstract

Acute inflammation is a response to an alteration induced by a pathogen or a physical or chemical insult, which functions to eliminate the source of the damage and restore homeostasis to the affected tissue. However, chronic inflammation triggers cellular events that can promote malignant transformation of cells and carcinogenesis. Several inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β, and IL-10, have been shown to participate in both the initiation and progression of cancer. In this review, we explore the role of these cytokines in important events of carcinogenesis, such as their capacity to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their potential mutagenic effect, and their involvement in mechanisms for epithelial mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Finally, we will provide an in-depth analysis of the participation of these cytokines in two types of cancer attributable to chronic inflammatory disease: colitis-associated colorectal cancer and cholangiocarcinoma.

PMID:
24901008
PMCID:
PMC4036716
DOI:
10.1155/2014/149185
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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