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PLoS One. 2014 Jun 4;9(6):e98312. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098312. eCollection 2014.

Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI).

Author information

1
Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
2
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Far Eastern Polyclinic, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Department and Graduate School of Electrical Engineering, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Department and Graduate School of Electrical Engineering, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Computer and Communication Engineering, De-Lin Institution of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
5
Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Sleep Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
6
Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) was demonstrated.

METHODS:

A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9 ± 2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internal-consistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored.

RESULTS:

Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations  = 0.74-0.91) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56-0.78), but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome.

CONCLUSION:

This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction.

PMID:
24896252
PMCID:
PMC4045675
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0098312
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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