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J Dyn Syst Meas Control. 2014 Jan;136(1):0110051-1100513. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Nonlinear Cascade Strategy for Longitudinal Control of Electric Vehicle.

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Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Caen Basse-Normandie , GREYC Lab UMR CNRS , 14032 Caen , France.


The problem of controlling the longitudinal motion of front-wheels electric vehicle (EV) is considered making the focus on the case where a single dc motor is used for both front wheels. Chassis dynamics are modelled applying relevant fundamental laws taking into account the aerodynamic effects and the road slope variation. The longitudinal slip, resulting from tire deformation, is captured through Kiencke's model. Despite its highly nonlinear nature the complete model proves to be utilizable in longitudinal control design. The control objective is to achieve a satisfactory vehicle speed regulation in acceleration/deceleration stages, despite wind speed and other parameters uncertainty. An adaptive controller is developed using the backstepping design technique. The obtained adaptive controller is shown to meet its objectives in presence of the changing aerodynamics efforts and road slope.


adaptive control and backstepping design; advanced vehicle control; longitudinal behaviour; longitudinal slip; speed regulation; tire Kiencke's model

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