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Nat Commun. 2014 Jun 4;5:4033. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5033.

Expanded graphite as superior anode for sodium-ion batteries.

Author information

1
1] Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA [2].
2
1] Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA [2].
3
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.
5
1] Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA [2] Center for Structural Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.
6
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

Abstract

Graphite, as the most common anode for commercial Li-ion batteries, has been reported to have a very low capacity when used as a Na-ion battery anode. It is well known that electrochemical insertion of Na(+) into graphite is significantly hindered by the insufficient interlayer spacing. Here we report expanded graphite as a Na-ion battery anode. Prepared through a process of oxidation and partial reduction on graphite, expanded graphite has an enlarged interlayer lattice distance of 4.3 Å yet retains an analogous long-range-ordered layered structure to graphite. In situ transmission electron microscopy has demonstrated that the Na-ion can be reversibly inserted into and extracted from expanded graphite. Galvanostatic studies show that expanded graphite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 284 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 20 mA g(-1), maintain a capacity of 184 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1), and retain 73.92% of its capacity after 2,000 cycles.

PMID:
24893716
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms5033
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