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J Cell Biol. 2014 Jun 9;205(5):677-92. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201401138. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Identification of unique SUN-interacting nuclear envelope proteins with diverse functions in plants.

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Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 OBP, England, UK.
The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich NR4 7UH, England, UK.
Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210


Although a plethora of nuclear envelope (NE) transmembrane proteins (NETs) have been identified in opisthokonts, plant NETs are largely unknown. The only known NET homologues in plants are Sad1/UNC-84 (SUN) proteins, which bind Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-1 homology (KASH) proteins. Therefore, de novo identification of plant NETs is necessary. Based on similarities between opisthokont KASH proteins and the only known plant KASH proteins, WPP domain-interacting proteins, we used a computational method to identify the KASH subset of plant NETs. Ten potential plant KASH protein families were identified, and five candidates from four of these families were verified for their NE localization, depending on SUN domain interaction. Of those, Arabidopsis thaliana SINE1 is involved in actin-dependent nuclear positioning in guard cells, whereas its paralogue SINE2 contributes to innate immunity against an oomycete pathogen. This study dramatically expands our knowledge of plant KASH proteins and suggests that plants and opisthokonts have recruited different KASH proteins to perform NE regulatory functions.

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