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Front Neuroendocrinol. 2014 Aug;35(3):320-30. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.05.004. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Sex differences in anxiety and depression clinical perspectives.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, United States; Department of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address: maltemus@med.cornell.edu.
2
North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Zucker-Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, United States.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Penn Center for Women's Behavioral Wellness, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Penn Center for Women's Behavioral Wellness, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Penn Center for the Study of Sex and Gender in Behavioral Health, University of Pennsylvania, United States.

Abstract

Sex differences are prominent in mood and anxiety disorders and may provide a window into mechanisms of onset and maintenance of affective disturbances in both men and women. With the plethora of sex differences in brain structure, function, and stress responsivity, as well as differences in exposure to reproductive hormones, social expectations and experiences, the challenge is to understand which sex differences are relevant to affective illness. This review will focus on clinical aspects of sex differences in affective disorders including the emergence of sex differences across developmental stages and the impact of reproductive events. Biological, cultural, and experiential factors that may underlie sex differences in the phenomenology of mood and anxiety disorders are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; Depression; Development; Hormones; Puberty; Sex difference

PMID:
24887405
PMCID:
PMC4890708
DOI:
10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.05.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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