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JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Aug;168(8):706-13. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.410.

The prevalence of confirmed maltreatment among US children, 2004 to 2011.

Author information

1
Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
2
Department of Economics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
4
School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles5Center for Social Services Research, University of California, Berkeley.
5
School of Social Work, Columbia University, New York, New York.
6
Department of Sociology, University of Washington, Seattle.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Child maltreatment is a risk factor for poor health throughout the life course. Existing estimates of the proportion of the US population maltreated during childhood are based on retrospective self-reports. Records of officially confirmed maltreatment have been used to produce annual rather than cumulative counts of maltreated individuals.

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate the proportion of US children with a report of maltreatment (abuse or neglect) that was indicated or substantiated by Child Protective Services (referred to as confirmed maltreatment) by 18 years of age.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File includes information on all US children with a confirmed report of maltreatment, totaling 5,689,900 children (2004-2011). We developed synthetic cohort life tables to estimate the cumulative prevalence of confirmed childhood maltreatment by 18 years of age.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

The cumulative prevalence of confirmed child maltreatment by race/ethnicity, sex, and year.

RESULTS:

At 2011 rates, 12.5% (95% CI, 12.5%-12.6%) of US children will experience a confirmed case of maltreatment by 18 years of age. Girls have a higher cumulative prevalence (13.0% [95% CI, 12.9%-13.0%]) than boys (12.0% [12.0%-12.1%]). Black (20.9% [95% CI, 20.8%-21.1%]), Native American (14.5% [14.2%-14.9%]), and Hispanic (13.0% [12.9%-13.1%]) children have higher prevalences than white (10.7% [10.6%-10.8%]) or Asian/Pacific Islander (3.8% [3.7%-3.8%]) children. The risk for maltreatment is highest in the first few years of life; 2.1% (95% CI, 2.1%-2.1%) of children have confirmed maltreatment by 1 year of age, and 5.8% (5.8%-5.9%), by 5 years of age. Estimates from 2011 were consistent with those from 2004 through 2010.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Annual rates of confirmed child maltreatment dramatically understate the cumulative number of children confirmed to be maltreated during childhood. Our findings indicate that maltreatment will be confirmed for 1 in 8 US children by 18 years of age, far greater than the 1 in 100 children whose maltreatment is confirmed annually. For black children, the cumulative prevalence is 1 in 5; for Native American children, 1 in 7.

PMID:
24887073
PMCID:
PMC5087599
DOI:
10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.410
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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