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Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Sep;71:42-50. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.015. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Screening level health risk assessment of selected metals in apple juice sold in the United States.

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Cardno ChemRisk, 4840 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300 West, Boulder, CO 80301, United States. Electronic address:
Cardno ChemRisk, 4840 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300 West, Boulder, CO 80301, United States.
Cardno ChemRisk, 130 Vantis Suite 170, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656, United States.
Cardno ChemRisk, 20 Stanwix St., Suite 505, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, United States.
Cardno ChemRisk, 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105, United States.


Concerns have recently been raised about the presence of metals in apple juices. As such, the concentration of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in six commercially available brands of apple juice and three organic brands. The concentrations of total As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Zn in all nine apple juice brands sampled were below each metal's respective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maximum contaminant level for bottled water. However, in some apple juices the levels of Al, Pb, and Mn exceeded FDA maximum contaminant levels for bottled water. Therefore, a screening level risk assessment was carried out to assess the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks that may result from metal exposure via apple juice consumption. Changes in blood Pb concentrations were also estimated to characterize potential risk from Pb exposure. Our results suggest that the exposure concentrations of the studied metals do not pose an increased non-carcinogenic risk (Hazard Index<1). Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from apple juice consumption was also estimated using both the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) and the U.S. EPA cancer slope factor for inorganic As.


Apple juice; Exposure assessment; Metals; Risk assessment

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