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Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2014 Jul;23(3):593-608. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2014.03.009. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

Nonsurgical ablation of breast cancer: future options for small breast tumors.

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Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, 3304 Cancer Center, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:


The surgical management of breast cancer has evolved significantly, facilitated by advancements in technology and imaging and improvements in adjuvant therapy. The changes in surgical management have been characterized by equal or improved outcomes with significantly less morbidity. The next step in this evolution is the minimally invasive or noninvasive ablation of breast cancers as an alternative to lumpectomy. In this article, the various modalities for nonsurgical breast cancer ablation and the clinical experience are reviewed, and some of the next steps necessary for their clinical implementation are outlined.


Breast cancer; Cryoablation; High-intensity focused ultrasonography; In situ ablation; Radiofrequency ablation

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