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Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1912-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60688-7.

Hypertension management in England: a serial cross-sectional study from 1994 to 2011.

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Imperial Clinical Trials Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK. Electronic address:
Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
International Center for Circulatory Health, National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.



Hypertension is the leading risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. We aimed to assess the change in blood pressure management between 1994 and 2011 in England with a series of annual surveys.


We did a serial cross-sectional study of five Health Survey for England surveys based on nationally representative samples of non-institutionalised adults (aged ≥16 years). Mean blood pressure levels and rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were assessed. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or higher, diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or higher, or receiving treatment for high blood pressure.


The mean blood pressure levels of men and women in the general population and among patients with treated hypertension progressively improved between 1994 and 2011. In patients with treated hypertension, blood pressure improved from 150·0 (SE 0·59)/80·2 (0·27) mm Hg to 135·4 (0·58)/73·5 (0·41) mm Hg. Awareness, treatment, and control rates among men and women combined also improved significantly across each stage of this 17-year period, with the prevalence of control among treated patients almost doubling from 33% (SE 1·4) in 1994 to 63% (1·7) in 2011. Nevertheless, of all adults with survey-defined hypertension in 2011, hypertension was controlled in only 37%.


If the same systematic improvement in all aspects of hypertension management continues until 2022, 80% of patients with treated hypertension will have controlled blood pressure levels with a potential annual saving of about 50,000 major cardiovascular events.



[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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