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Diabetes Metab. 2015 Feb;41(1):62-8. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2014.04.007. Epub 2014 May 28.

Prevalence of anxiety and depression among diabetic African patients in Guinea: association with HbA1c levels.

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Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Conakry, Guinea; Inserm, CIC 0203, University Hospital of Pontchaillou, Rennes, France. Electronic address:
Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Conakry, Guinea.
Central Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences University, Yaounde, Cameroon.
Inserm, CIC 0203, University Hospital of Pontchaillou, Rennes, France; Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Rennes, France.



The prevalence and risk factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression were determined in African people with diabetes.


This cross-sectional study involved 491 outpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) recruited from four diabetes clinics (Conakry, Labé, Boké and Kankan) in Guinea. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression. Logistic regression analysis stratified by gender was performed to identify the associated risk factors.


Anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 58.7% and 34.4%, respectively, of the 491 patients with T2D (62.7% women, mean±SD age: 57.9±10.2years). Odds ratios (95% CI) of risk factors independently associated with anxiety were urban residence [2.98 (1.81-4.89)] in women, and low socioeconomic status [0.19 (0.05-0.70)] and HbA1c≥9.0% [2.61 (1.0-6.39)] in men. Factors associated with depression were urban residence [2.13 (1.27-3.58)], older age [1.03 (1.01-1.06)], low socioeconomic status [2.21 (1.34-3.66)] and no previous measurement of HbA1c [12.45 (1.54-100.34)] in women, and insulin therapy [2.28 (1.05-4.92)] and HbA1c≥9.0% [3.85 (1.02-14.48)] in men.


Anxiety and depression symptoms in people with type T2D are common in Guinea. Urban residence, low socioeconomic status and high levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with a greater risk of anxiety and depression, highlighting the psychological burden related to diabetes in Africa.


Anxiety; Depression; Risk factors; Type 2 diabetes

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