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Lancet. 2014 Aug 30;384(9945):766-81. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8. Epub 2014 May 29.

Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Ng M1, Fleming T1, Robinson M1, Thomson B1, Graetz N1, Margono C1, Mullany EC1, Biryukov S1, Abbafati C2, Abera SF3, Abraham JP4, Abu-Rmeileh NM5, Achoki T6, AlBuhairan FS7, Alemu ZA8, Alfonso R9, Ali MK10, Ali R11, Guzman NA12, Ammar W13, Anwari P14, Banerjee A15, Barquera S16, Basu S17, Bennett DA11, Bhutta Z18, Blore J19, Cabral N20, Nonato IC16, Chang JC21, Chowdhury R22, Courville KJ23, Criqui MH24, Cundiff DK25, Dabhadkar KC10, Dandona L26, Davis A27, Dayama A10, Dharmaratne SD28, Ding EL29, Durrani AM30, Esteghamati A31, Farzadfar F31, Fay DF27, Feigin VL32, Flaxman A1, Forouzanfar MH1, Goto A33, Green MA34, Gupta R35, Hafezi-Nejad N31, Hankey GJ36, Harewood HC37, Havmoeller R38, Hay S11, Hernandez L16, Husseini A39, Idrisov BT40, Ikeda N41, Islami F42, Jahangir E43, Jassal SK44, Jee SH45, Jeffreys M46, Jonas JB47, Kabagambe EK48, Khalifa SE49, Kengne AP50, Khader YS51, Khang YH52, Kim D53, Kimokoti RW54, Kinge JM55, Kokubo Y56, Kosen S57, Kwan G58, Lai T59, Leinsalu M60, Li Y61, Liang X62, Liu S62, Logroscino G63, Lotufo PA64, Lu Y29, Ma J62, Mainoo NK65, Mensah GA66, Merriman TR67, Mokdad AH1, Moschandreas J68, Naghavi M1, Naheed A69, Nand D70, Narayan KM10, Nelson EL1, Neuhouser ML71, Nisar MI18, Ohkubo T72, Oti SO73, Pedroza A16, Prabhakaran D74, Roy N75, Sampson U48, Seo H76, Sepanlou SG77, Shibuya K78, Shiri R79, Shiue I80, Singh GM29, Singh JA81, Skirbekk V55, Stapelberg NJ82, Sturua L83, Sykes BL84, Tobias M1, Tran BX85, Trasande L86, Toyoshima H87, van de Vijver S73, Vasankari TJ88, Veerman JL89, Velasquez-Melendez G90, Vlassov VV91, Vollset SE92, Vos T1, Wang C93, Wang X94, Weiderpass E95, Werdecker A96, Wright JL97, Yang YC98, Yatsuya H99, Yoon J100, Yoon SJ101, Zhao Y102, Zhou M61, Zhu S103, Lopez AD19, Murray CJ1, Gakidou E104.

Author information

1
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA.
2
"La Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
3
School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
4
University of Texas School of Medicine, San Antonio, TX, USA.
5
Institute of Community and Public Health, Birzeti University, Ramallah, West Bank, Occupied Palestinian Territory.
6
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA; Ministry of Health, Gaborone, Botswana.
7
King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
8
Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
9
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
10
Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
11
University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
12
Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.
13
Ministry of Public Health, Beirut, Lebanon.
14
UNFPA, Kabul, Afghanistan.
15
University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
16
National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
17
Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
18
Aga Khan University Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan.
19
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
20
Universidad de Joinville-Univille, Joinville, Brazil.
21
National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
22
University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
23
Hospital Dr. Gustavo N. Collado, Chitre, Herrera, Panama.
24
University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
25
Independent Researcher, Long Beach, CA, USA.
26
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA; Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India.
27
Public Health England, London, UK.
28
University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
29
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA USA.
30
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda and Montgomery, MD, USA.
31
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
32
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand.
33
Department of Diabetes Research, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
34
University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
35
Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur, India.
36
School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
37
Eunice Gibson Polyclinic, Bridgetown, Barbados.
38
Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
39
Birzeit University, Birzeit, Ramallah, Palestine.
40
Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA.
41
National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.
42
American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.
43
Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.
44
VA San Diego, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
45
Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
46
University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
47
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
48
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.
49
Supreme Council of Health, Doha, Qatar.
50
South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
51
Jordan University of Science and Technology, AlRamtha, Jordan.
52
Institute of Health Policy and Management, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
53
Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
54
Simmons College, Boston, MA, USA.
55
The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
56
Department of Preventive Cardiology, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiologic Informatics, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.
57
Center for Community Empowerment, Health Policy & Informatics, NIHRD, Jakarta, Indonesia.
58
Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
59
Fourth View Consulting, Tallinn, Estonia.
60
The National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
61
National Center for Chronic and Non-communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
62
Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
63
University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
64
University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
65
Xpharmconsult, Kumasi, Ghana.
66
Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science (CTRIS), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda and Montgomery, MD, USA.
67
University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
68
University of Crete, Crete, Greece.
69
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
70
Ministry of Health, Suva, Republic of Fiji.
71
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
72
Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
73
African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya.
74
Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi, India.
75
BARC Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
76
Department of Public Health, Graduate School, Seoul, Korea.
77
Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
78
University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
79
Finnish institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
80
Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
81
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
82
Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia.
83
National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia.
84
University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA USA.
85
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
86
NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
87
Health Care Center of Anjo Kosei Hospital, Anjo City, Japan.
88
UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
89
University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
90
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Enfermagem, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
91
National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
92
The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
93
Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
94
Shandong University affiliated Jinan Central Hospital, Jinan, China.
95
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
96
Institute of Medical Sociology and Social Medicine, Marburg, Hessen, Germany.
97
School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.
98
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
99
Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan.
100
Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
101
Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
102
Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
103
Zhejiang University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, China.
104
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: gakidou@uw.edu.

Erratum in

  • Lancet. 2014 Aug 30;384(9945):746.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013.

METHODS:

We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

FINDINGS:

Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down.

INTERPRETATION:

Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene.

FUNDING:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID:
24880830
PMCID:
PMC4624264
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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