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Poult Sci. 2014 Jun;93(6):1534-41. doi: 10.3382/ps.2013-03535.

Impact of broiler processing scalding and chilling profiles on carcass and breast meat yield.

Author information

1
Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605 jeff.buhr@ars.usda.gov.
2
Marel Stork Poultry Processing Inc., Gainesville, GA 30503.
3
Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605.
4
Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens 30602.
5
Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605.

Abstract

The effect of scalding and chilling procedures was evaluated on carcass and breast meat weight and yield in broilers. On 4 separate weeks (trials), broilers were subjected to feed withdrawal, weighed, and then stunned and bled in 4 sequential batches (n = 16 broilers/batch, 64 broilers/trial). In addition, breast skin was collected before scalding, after scalding, and after defeathering for proximate analysis. Each batch of 16 carcasses was subjected to either hard (60.0°C for 1.5 min) or soft (52.8°C for 3 min) immersion scalding. Following defeathering and evisceration, 8 carcasses/batch were air-chilled (0.5°C, 120 min, 86% RH) and 8 carcasses/batch were immersion water-chilled (water and ice 0.5°C, 40 min). Carcasses were reweighed individually following evisceration and following chilling. Breast meat was removed from the carcass and weighed within 4 h postmortem. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences among the trials for all weights and yields; however, postfeed withdrawal shackle weight and postscald-defeathered eviscerated weights did not differ between the scalding and chilling treatments. During air-chilling all carcasses lost weight, resulting in postchill carcass yield of 73.0% for soft-scalded and 71.3% for hard-scalded carcasses, a difference of 1.7%. During water-chilling all carcasses gained weight, resulting in heavier postchill carcass weights (2,031 g) than for air-chilled carcasses (1,899 g). Postchill carcass yields were correspondingly higher for water-chilled carcasses, 78.2% for soft-scalded and 76.1% for hard-scalded carcasses, a difference of 2.1%. Only in trials 1 and 4 was breast meat yield significantly lower for hard-scalded, air-chilled carcasses (16.1 and 17.5%) than the other treatments. Proximate analysis of skin sampled after scalding or defeathering did not differ significantly in moisture (P = 0.2530) or lipid (P = 0.6412) content compared with skin sampled before scalding. Skin protein content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for prescald and soft-scalded skin samples than for hard-scalded or soft or hard-scalded skin samples after defeathering. The hard-scalding method used in this experiment did not result in increased skin lipid loss either before or after defeathering.

KEYWORDS:

broiler processing; chilling; scalding; yield

PMID:
24879703
DOI:
10.3382/ps.2013-03535
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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