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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Oct;69(10):2669-75. doi: 10.1093/jac/dku178. Epub 2014 May 30.

Extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and people living and/or working on broiler farms: prevalence, risk factors and molecular characteristics.

Author information

1
Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences (WIAS), Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
2
Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences (WIAS), Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
3
Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Bacteriology and TSEs, Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Bacteriology and TSEs, Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
6
Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands engeline.van.duijkeren@rivm.nl.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The objectives of this study were to: estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli carriage among broiler farmers, their family members and employees; identify and quantify risk factors for carriage, with an emphasis on contact with live broilers; and compare isolates from humans and broilers within farms with respect to molecular characteristics to gain insight into transmission routes.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional prevalence study was conducted on 50 randomly selected Dutch broiler farms. Cloacal swabs were taken from 20 randomly chosen broilers. Faecal swabs were returned by 141 individuals living and/or working on 47 farms. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were isolated and, for selected isolates, phylogenetic groups, plasmids and sequence types were determined. Questionnaires were used for risk factor analysis.

RESULTS:

All sampled farms were positive, with 96.4% positive pooled broiler samples. The human prevalence was 19.1%, with 14.3% and 27.1% among individuals having a low and a high degree of contact with live broilers, respectively. Five pairs of human-broiler isolates had identical genes, plasmid families and E. coli sequence types, showing clonal transmission. Furthermore, similar ESBL/AmpC genes on the same plasmid families in different E. coli sequence types in humans and broilers hinted at horizontal gene transfer.

CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence among people on broiler farms was higher than in previous studies involving patients and the general population. Furthermore, an increased risk of carriage was shown among individuals having a high degree of contact with live broilers. The (relative) contribution of transmission routes that might play a role in the dissemination of ESBL/AmpC-encoding resistance genes to humans on broiler farms should be pursued in future studies.

KEYWORDS:

ESBLs; MLST; carriage; phylogenetic groups; plasmids

PMID:
24879667
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dku178
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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