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Environ Int. 2014 Sep;70:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.020. Epub 2014 May 27.

The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.

Author information

1
Bureau Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: jake.ryan@hc-sc.gc.ca.
2
Bureau Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: thea.rawn@hc-sc.gc.ca.

Abstract

Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20μg/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the α-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized.

KEYWORDS:

Biomonitoring; Brominated flame retardants (BFRs); Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD); Human milk; Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

PMID:
24879366
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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