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Am J Cardiol. 2014 Jul 15;114(2):300-4. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.04.041. Epub 2014 May 2.

Comparison of long-term postoperative sequelae in patients with tetralogy of Fallot versus isolated pulmonic stenosis.

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Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
Department of Pediatric Cardiology, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:


Patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) after complete repair and pulmonic stenosis (PS) after surgical valvotomy often develop significant pulmonic regurgitation (PR) that eventually requires valve replacement. Although criteria exist for the timing of pulmonary valve replacement in TOF, it remains less clear when to intervene in valvotomy patients and whether TOF recommendations can be applied. Our aim was to compare the structural and functional sequelae of valvotomy for PS with complete repair for TOF. We compared the clinical characteristics, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and invasive hemodynamics of 109 adults (34 PS and 75 TOF) newly referred to a congenital heart disease center for evaluation of PR between 2005 and 2012. Both cohorts were similar in terms of baseline demographics and presenting New York Heart Association function class. Valvotomy patients had a slightly greater degree of PR by echocardiogram, although it was similar by cardiac MRI. Electrocardiography QRS width was greater in patients with TOF (114±27 vs 150±28 ms, p<0.001). MRI right ventricular ejection fraction (49±8 vs 41±11%, p=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (59±7 vs 52±10%, p=0.002) were lower in patients with TOF. Pacemaker or defibrillator implantation was significantly greater in patients with TOF (3% vs 23%, p=0.011). In conclusion, patients postvalvotomy and complete repair present with similar degrees of PR and severity of symptoms. Biventricular systolic function and electrocardiography QRS width appear less affected, suggesting morphologic changes in TOF and its repair that extend beyond the effects of PR. These findings suggest the need for developing disease-specific guidelines for patients with PR postvalvotomy.

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