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Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(5):791-9. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2014.916321. Epub 2014 May 30.

Diet and esophageal cancer risk in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

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1
a Oncology Research Unit , Medical Research Council , Overport , South Africa.

Abstract

A multicenter hospital-based case-control study comprising 670 incident cases of esophageal cancer (EC) and 1188 controls, frequency-matched for age and sex, was conducted to evaluate the role of diet on EC development in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A locally relevant lifestyle and dietary questionnaire was used. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional multivariable logistic regression. Individually, maize or sorghum consumption vs. never or rare consumption were not associated with EC (P > 0.1). Males and females consuming green leafy vegetables 5-7 days/wk had 38% (P = 0.04) and 50% (P = 0.007) reduced odds of developing EC, respectively, compared with consumption ≤1 day/wk. A similar reduction in odds was observed with fruit consumption. Principal component factor analysis revealed 3 distinct dietary patterns. In females, high vs. low consumption of Pattern 1 (sorghum, green leafy vegetables, green legumes, fruits, meat) was inversely associated with EC development (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.34-0.89), whereas for Pattern 2 (maize, wild greens-imifino, dry beans) the odds were elevated (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.04-2.67). Compared with low adherence, high adherence to Pattern 3 (wheat-based products) reduced the odds by 35% for both sexes. This study provides further evidence on the role of diet in minimizing EC risk in this population.

PMID:
24877989
DOI:
10.1080/01635581.2014.916321
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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