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Ergonomics. 2014;57(8):1140-53. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2014.914581. Epub 2014 May 30.

User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television.

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a Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University , Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH , UK.


3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the 'nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D.


3D television; binocular vision; eyestrain; stereo vision; stereoscopic displays; visual fatigue

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