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Exp Neurol. 2014 Nov;261:171-9. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.05.021. Epub 2014 May 27.

Global gene expression analysis following spinal cord injury in non-human primates.

Author information

1
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: soraya-n@z8.keio.jp.
2
Department of Dermatology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Center for Integrated Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: sasasa@z5.keio.jp.
3
Division of Biomedical Information Analysis, Iwate Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1, Nishitokuta, Yahaba-cho, Shiwa-gun, Iwate 028-3694, Japan. Electronic address: chromosome8q23@gmail.com.
4
Regenerative & Cellular Medicine Office, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugade-naka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0022, Japan. Electronic address: kenji-yoshida@ds-pharma.co.jp.
5
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: iwai@a7.keio.jp.
6
Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: koya-ikuko@a5.keio.jp.
7
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: y.kobayashi@z7.keio.jp.
8
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: itakura@a2.keio.jp.
9
Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: shibata@2001.jukuin.keio.ac.jp.
10
Genomic Science Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugade-naka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0022, Japan. Electronic address: hayao-ebise@ds-pharma.co.jp.
11
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: horiuchi@z3.keio.jp.
12
Laboratory of Gene Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: jkudoh@dmb.med.keio.ac.jp.
13
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: toyama@z6.keio.jp.
14
Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA. Electronic address: aja@uci.edu.
15
Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: hidokano@a2.keio.jp.
16
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: masa@a8.keio.jp.

Abstract

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with no established treatment. To better understand the pathology and develop a treatment modality for SCI, an understanding of the physiological changes following SCI at the molecular level is essential. However, studies on SCI have primarily used rodent models, and few studies have examined SCI in non-human primates. In this study, we analyzed the temporal changes in gene expression patterns following SCI in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) using microarray analysis and mRNA deep sequencing. This analysis revealed that, although the sequence of events is comparable between primates and rodents, the inflammatory response following SCI is significantly prolonged and the onset of glial scar formation is temporally delayed in primates compared with rodents. These observations indicate that the optimal time window to treat SCI significantly differs among different species. This study provides the first extensive analysis of gene expression following SCI in non-human primates and will serve as a valuable resource in understanding the pathology of SCI.

KEYWORDS:

Microarray; Non-human primate; Spinal cord injury; mRNA sequencing

PMID:
24873731
DOI:
10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.05.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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