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J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 May 28;3(3):e000844. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.000844.

Severity of cardiovascular disease outcomes among patients with HIV is related to markers of inflammation and coagulation.

Collaborators (1700)

Gordin F, Finley E, Dietz D, Chesson C, Vjecha M, Standridge B, Schmetter B, Grue L, Willoughby M, Demers A, Lundgren JD, Phillips A, Dragsted UB, Jensen KB, Fau A, Borup L, Pearson M, Jansson PO, Jensen BG, Benfield TL, Darbyshire JH, Babiker AG, Palfreeman AJ, Fleck SL, Collaco-Moraes Y, Cordwell B, Dodds W, van Hooff F, Wyzydrag L, Cooper DA, Emery S, Drummond FM, Connor SA, Satchell CS, Gunn S, Oka S, Delfino MA, Merlin K, McGinley C, Neaton JD, Bartsch G, DuChene A, George M, Grund B, Harrison M, Hogan C, Krum E, Larson G, Miller C, Nelson R, Neuhaus J, Roediger MP, Schultz T, Thackeray L, Prineas R, Campbell C, Perez G, Lifson A, Duprez D, Hoy J, Lahart C, Perlman D, Price R, Prineas R, Rhame F, Sampson J, Worley J, Der Simonian R, Brody BA, Daar ES, Dubler NN, Fleming TR, Freeman DJ, Kahn JP, Kim KM, Medoff G, Modlin JF, Moellering R Jr, Murray BE, Pick B, Robb ML, Scharfstein DO, Sugarman J, Tsiatis A, Tuazon C, Zoloth L, Klingman K, Lehrman S, Lazovski J, Belloso WH, Losso MH, Benetucci JA, Aquilia S, Bittar V, Bogdanowicz EP, Cahn PE, Casiró AD, Cassetti I, Contarelli JM, Corral JA, Crinejo A, Daciuk L, David DO, Guaragna G, Ishida MT, Krolewiecki A, Laplume HE, Lasala MB, Lourtau L, Lupo SH, Maranzana A, Masciottra F, Michaan M, Ruggieri L, Salazar E, Sánchez M, Somenzini C, Hoy JF, Rogers GD, Allworth AM, Anderson JS, Armishaw J, Barnes K, Carr A, Chiam A, Chuah JC, Curry MC, Dever RL, Donohue WA, Doong NC, Dwyer DE, Dyer J, Eu B, Ferguson VW, French MA, Garsia RJ, Gold J, Hudson JH, Jeganathan S, Konecny P, Leung J, McCormack CL, McMurchie M, Medland N, Moore RJ, Moussa MB, Orth D, Piper M, Read T, Roney JJ, Roth N, Shaw DR, Silvers J, Smith DJ, Street AC, Vale RJ, Wendt NA, Wood H, Youds DW, Zillman J, Rieger A, Tozeau V, Aichelburg A, Vetter N, Clumeck N, Dewit S, de Roo A, Kabeya K, Leonard P, Lynen L, Moutschen M, O'Doherty E, Pereira LC Jr, Souza TN, Schechter M, Zajdenverg R, Almeida MM, Araujo F, Bahia F, Brites C, Caseiro MM, Casseb J, Etzel A, Falco GG, Filho EC, Flint SR, Gonzales CR, Madruga JV, Passos LN, Reuter T, Sidi LC, Toscano AL, Zarowny D, Cherban E, Cohen J, Conway B, Dufour C, Ellis M, Foster A, Haase D, Haldane H, Houde M, Kato C, Klein M, Lessard B, Martel A, Martel C, McFarland N, Paradis E, Piche A, Sandre R, Schlech W, Schmidt S, Smaill F, Thompson B, Trottier S, Vezina S, Walmsley S, Wolff Reyes MJ, Northland R, Ostergaard L, Pedersen C, Nielsen H, Hergens L, Loftheim IR, Jensen KB, Raukas M, Zilmer K, Justinen J, Ristola M, Girard PM, Landman R, Abel S, Abgrall S, Amat K, Auperin L, Barruet R, Benalycherif A, Benammar N, Bensalem M, Bentata M, Besnier JM, Blanc M, Bouchaud O, Cabié A, Chavannet P, Chennebault JM, Dargere S, de la Tribonniere X, Debord T, Decaux N, Delgado J, Dupon M, Durant J, Frixon-Marin V, Genet C, Gérard L, Gilquin J, Hoen B, Jeantils V, Kouadio H, Leclercq P, Lelièvre J-, Levy Y, Michon CP, Nau P, Pacanowski J, Piketty C, Poizot-Martin I, Raymond I, Salmon D, Schmit JL, Serini MA, Simon A, Tassi S, Touam F, Verdon R, Weinbreck P, Weiss L, Yazdanpanah Y, Yeni P, Fätkenheuer G, Staszewski S, Bergmann F, Bitsch S, Bogner JR, Brockmeyer N, Esser S, Goebel FD, Hartmann M, Klinker H, Lehmann C, Lennemann T, Plettenberg A, Potthof A, Rockstroh J, Ross B, Stoehr A, Wasmuth JC, Wiedemeyer K, Winzer R, Hatzakis A, Touloumi G, Antoniadou A, Daikos GL, Dimitrakaki A, Gargalianos-Kakolyris P, Giannaris M, Karafoulidou A, Katsambas A, Katsarou O, Kontos AN, Kordossis T, Lazanas MK, Panagopoulos P, Panos G, Paparizos V, Papastamopoulos V, Petrikkos G, Sambatakou H, Skoutelis A, Tsogas N, Xylomenos G, Bergin CJ, Mooka B, Pollack S, Mamorksy MG, Agmon-Levin N, Karplus R, Kedem E, Maayan S, Shahar E, Sthoeger Z, Turner D, Yust I, Tambussi G, Rusconi V, Abeli C, Bechi M, Biglino A, Bonora S, Butini L, Carosi G, Casari S, Corpolongo A, De Gioanni M, Di Perri G, Di Pietro M, D'Offizi G, Esposito R, Mazzotta F, Montroni M, Nardini G, Nozza S, Quirino T, Raise E, Honda M, Ishisaka M, Caplinskas S, Uzdaviniene V, Schmit JC, Staub T, Himmich H, Marhoum El Filali K, Mills GD, Blackmore T, Masters JA, Morgan J, Pithie A, Brunn J, Ormasssen V, La Rosa A, Guerra O, Espichan M, Gutierrez L, Mendo F, Salazar R, Knytz B, Horban A, Bakowska E, Beniowski M, Gasiorowski J, Kwiatkowski J, Antunes F, Castro RS, Doroana M, Horta A, Mansinho K, Miranda AC, Pinto IV, Valadas E, Vera J, Rakhmanova A, Vinogradova E, Yakovlev A, Zakharova N, Wood R, Orrel C, Gatell J, Arnaiz JA, Carrillo R, Clotet B, Dalmau D, González A, Jordano Q, Jou A, Knobel H, Larrousse M, Mata R, Moreno JS, Oretaga E, Pena JN, Pulido F, Rubio R, Sanz J, Viciana P, Hirschel B, Spycher R, Battegay M, Bernasconi E, Bottone S, Cavassini M, Christen A, Franc C, Furrer HJ, Gayet-Ageron A, Genné D, Hochstrasser S, Magenta L, Moens C, Müller N, Nüesch R, Phanuphak P, Ruxrungtham K, Pumpradit W, Chetchotisakd P, Dangthongdee S, Kiertiburanakul S, Klinbuayaem V, Mootsikapun P, Nonenoy S, Piyavong B, Prasithsirikul W, Raksakulkarn P, Gazzard BG, Ainsworth JG, Anderson J, Angus BJ, Barber TJ, Brook MG, Care CD, Chadwick DR, Chikohora M, Churchill DR, Cornforth D, Dockrell DH, Easterbrook PJ, Fox PA, Fox R, Gomez PA, Gompels MM, Harris GM, Herman S, Jackson AG, Jebakumar SP, Johnson MA, Kinghorn GR, Kuldanek KA, Larbalestier N, Leen C, Lumsden M, Maher T, Mantell J, Maw R, McKernan S, McLean L, Morris S, Muromba L, Orkin CM, Palfreeman AJ, Peters BS, Peto TE, Portsmouth SD, Rajamanoharan S, Ronan A, Schwenk A, Slinn MA, Stroud CJ, Thomas RC, Wansbrough-Jones MH, Whiles HJ, White DJ, Williams E, Williams IG, Youle M, Abrams DI, Acosta EA, Adams S, Adamski A, Andrews L, Antoniskis D, Aragon DR, Arduino R, Artz R, Bailowitz J, Barnett BJ, Baroni C, Barron M, Baxter JD, Beers D, Beilke M, Bemenderfer D, Bernard A, Besch CL, Bessesen MT, Bethel JT, Blue S, Blum JD, Boarden S, Bolan RK, Borgman JB, Brar I, Braxton BK, Bredeek UF, Brennan R, Britt DE, Brockelman J, Brown S, Bruzzese V, Bulgin-Coleman D, Bullock DE, Cafaro V, Campbell B, Caras S, Carroll J, Casey KK, Chiang F, Childress G, Cindrich RB, Clark C, Climo M, Cohen C, Coley J, Condoluci DV, Contreras R, Corser J, Cozzolino J, Crane LR, Daley L, Dandridge D, D'Antuono V, Patron JG, DeHovitz JA, DeJesus E, Des-Jardin J, Diaz-Linares M, Dietrich C, Dodson P, Dolce E, Elliott K, Erickson D, Estes M, Faber LL, Falbo J, Farrough MJ, Farthing CF, Ferrell-Gonzalez P, Flynn H, Frank C, Frank M, Freeman KF, French N, Friedland G, Fujita N, Gahagan L, Genther K, Gilson I, Goetz MB, Goodwin E, Graziano F, Guity CK, Gulick P, Gunderson ER, Hale CM, Hannah K, Henderson H, Hennessey K, Henry WK, Higgins DT, Hodder SL, Horowitz HW, Howe-Pittman M, Hubbard J, Hudson R, Hunter H, Hutelmyer C, Insignares MT, Jackson L, Jenny L, John M, Johnson DL, Johnson G, Johnson J, Johnson L, Kaatz J, Kaczmarski J, Kagan S, Kantor C, Kempner T, Kieckhaus K, Kimmel N, Klaus BM, Klimas N, Koeppe JR, Koirala J, Kopka J, Kostman JR, Kozal MJ, Kumar A, Labriola A, Lampiris H, Lamprecht C, Lattanzi KM, Lee J, Leggett J, Long C, Loquere A, Loveless K, Lucasti CJ, Luskin-Hawk R, MacVeigh M, Makohon LH, Mannheimer S, Markowitz NP, Marks C, Martinez N, Martorell C, McFeaters E, McGee B, McIntyre DM, McKee J, McManus E, Melecio LG, Melton D, Mercado S, Merrifield E, Mieras JA, Mogyoros M, Moran FM, Murphy K, Mushatt D, Mutic S, Nadeem I, Nadler JP, Nahass R, Nixon D, O'Brien S, Ognjan A, O'Hearn M, O'Keefe K, Okhuysen PC, Oldfield E, Olson D, Orenstein R, Ortiz R, Osterberger J, Owen W, Parpart F, Pastore-Lange V, Paul S, Pavlatos A, Pearce DD, Pelz R, Perez G, Peterson S, Pierone G Jr, Pitrak D, Powers SL, Pujet HC, Raaum JW, Ravishankar J, Reeder J, Regevik N, Reilly NA, Reyelt C, Riddell J 4th, Rimland D, Robinson ML, Rodriguez AE, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Rodriguez Derouen V, Roland R, Rosmarin C, Rossen WL, Rouff JR, Sampson JH, Sands M, Savini C, Schrader S, Schulte MM, Scott C, Scott R, Seedhom H, Sension M, Sheble-Hall A, Sheridan A, Shuter J, Slater LN, Slotten R, Slowinski D, Smith M, Snap S, States DM, Stewart M, Stringer G, Sullivan J, Summers KK, Swanson K, Sweeton IB, Szabo S, Tedaldi EM, Telzak EE, Temesgen Z, Thomas D, Thompson MA, Thompson S, Ting Hong Bong C, Tobin C, Uy J, Vaccaro A, Vasco LM, Vecino I, Verlinghieri GK, Visnegarwala F, Wade BH, Watson V, Weise JA, Weissman S, Wilkin AM, Williams L, Witter JH, Wojtusic L, Wright TJ, Yeh V, Young B, Zeana C, Zeh J, Savio E, Vacarezza M, Aagaard B, Aragon E, Arnaiz J, Borup L, Clotet B, Dragsted U, Fau A, Gey D, Grarup J, Hengge U, Herrero P, Jansson P, Jensen B, Jensen K, Juncher H, Lopez P, Lundgren J, Matthews C, Mollerup D, Pearson M, Phillips A, Reilev S, Tillmann K, Varea S, Angus B, Babiker A, Cordwell B, Darbyshire J, Dodds W, Fleck S, Horton J, Hudson F, Moraes Y, Pacciarini F, Palfreeman A, Paton N, Smith N, van Hooff F, Bebchuk J, Collins G, Denning E, DuChene A, Fosdick L, Harrison M, Herman-Lamin K, Krum E, Larson G, Neaton J, Nelson R, Quan K, Quan S, Schultz T, Thompson G, Wentworth D, Wyman N, Carey C, Chan F, Cooper D, Cordwell B, Courtney-Rodgers D, Drummond F, Emery S, Harrod M, Jacoby S, Kearney L, Law M, Lin E, Pett S, Robson R, Seneviratne N, Stewart M, Watts E, Finley E, Gordin F, Sánchez A, Standridge B, Vjecha M, Belloso W, Davey R, Duprez D, Gatell J, Hoy J, Lifson A, Pederson C, Perez G, Price R, Prineas R, Rhame F, Sampson J, Worley J, Modlin J, Beral V, Chaisson R, Fleming T, Hill C, Kim K, Murray B, Pick B, Seligmann M, Weller I, Cahill K, Fox L, Luzar M, Martinez A, McNay L, Pierson J, Tierney J, Vogel S, Costas V, Eckstrand J, Brown S, Abusamra L, Angel E, Aquilia S, Belloso W, Benetucci J, Bittar V, Bogdanowicz E, Cahn P, Casiro A, Contarelli J, Corral J, Daciuk L, David D, Dobrzanski W, Duran A, Ebenrstejin J, Ferrari I, Fridman D, Galache V, Guaragna G, Ivalo S, Krolewiecki A, Lanusse I, Laplume H, Lasala M, Lattes R, Lazovski J, Lopardo G, Losso M, Lourtau L, Lupo S, Maranzana A, Marson C, Massera L, Moscatello G, Olivia S, Otegui I, Palacios L, Parlante A, Salomon H, Sanchez M, Somenzini C, Suarez C, Tocci M, Toibaro J, Zala C, Agrawal S, Ambrose P, Anderson C, Anderson J, Baker D, Beileiter K, Blavius K, Bloch M, Boyle M, Bradford D, Britton P, Brown P, Busic T, Cain A, Carrall L, Carson S, Chenoweth I, Chuah J, Clark F, Clemons J, Clezy K, Cooper D, Cortissos P, Cunningham N, Curry M, Daly L, D'Arcy-Evans C, Del Rosario R, Dinning S, Dobson P, Donohue W, Doong N, Downs C, Edwards E, Edwards S, Egan C, Ferguson W, Finlayson R, Forsdyke C, Foy L, Franic T, Frater A, French M, Gleeson D, Gold J, Habel P, Haig K, Hardy S, Holland R, Hoy J, Hudson J, Hutchison R, Hyland N, James R, Johnston C, Kelly M, King M, Kunkel K, Lau H, Leamy J, Lester D, Leung J, Lohmeyer A, Lowe K, MacRae K, Magness C, Martinez O, Maruszak H, Medland N, Miller S, Murray J, Negus P, Newman R, Ngieng M, Nowlan C, Oddy J, Orford N, Orth D, Patching J, Plummer M, Price S, Primrose R, Prone I, Ree H, Remington C, Richardson R, Robinson S, Rogers G, Roney J, Roth N, Russell D, Ryan S, Sarangapany J, Schmidt T, Schneider K, Shields C, Silberberg C, Shaw D, Skett J, Smith D, Soo TM, Sowden D, Street A, Tee BK, Thomson J, Topaz S, Vale R, Villella C, Walker A, Watson A, Wendt N, Williams L, Youds D, Aichelburg A, Cichon P, Gemeinhart B, Rieger A, Schmied B, Touzeau-Romer V, Vetter N, Colebunders R, Clumeck N, DeRoo A, Kabeya K, O'Doherty E, de Wit S, Angel J, Arsenault M, Bast M, Beckthold B, Bouchard P, Chabot I, Clarke R, Cohen J, Coté P, Ellis M, Gagne C, Gill J, Houde M, Johnston B, Jubinville N, Kato C, Lamoureux N, Larson G, Latendre-Paquette J, Lindemulder A, McNeil A, McFarland N, Montaner J, Morrisseau C, O'Neill R, Page G, Piche A, Pongracz B, Preziosi H, Puri L, Rachlis A, Ralph E, Raymond I, Rouleau D, Routy JP, Sandre R, Seddon T, Shafran S, Sikora C, Smaill F, Stromberg D, Trottier S, Walmsley S, Weiss K, Williams K, Zarowny D, Baadegaard B, Andersen ÅB, Boedker K, Collins P, Gerstoft J, Jensen L, Moller H, Lehm Andersen P, Loftheim I, Mathiesen L, Nielsen H, Obel N, Pedersen C, Petersen D, Pors Jensen L, Trunk F, Aboulker JP, Aouba A, Bensalem M, Berthe H, Blanc C, Bloch M, Bornarel D, Bouchaud O, Boue F, Bouvet E, Brancon C, Breaud S, Brosseau D, Brunet A, Capitant C, Ceppi C, Chakvetadze C, Cheneau C, Chennebault JM, De Truchis P, Delavalle AM, Delfraissy JF, Dellamonica P, Delavalle AM, Dumont C, Edeb N, Fabre G, Ferrando S, Foltzer A, Foubert V, Gastaut JA, Gerbe J, Girard PM, Goujard C, Hoen B, Honore P, Hue H, Hynh T, Jung C, Kahi S, Katlama C, Lang JM, Le Baut V, Lefebvre B, Leturque N, Lévy Y, Loison J, Maddi G, Maignan A, Majerholc C, de Boever C, Meynard JL, Michelet C, Michon C, Mole M, Netzer E, Pialoux G, Poizot-Martin I, Raffi F, Ratajczak M, Ravaux I, Reynes J, Salmon-Ceron D, Sebire M, Simon A, Tegna L, Tisne-Dessus D, Tramoni C, Viard JP, Vidal M, Viet-Peaucelle C, Weiss L, Zeng A, Zucman D, Adam A, Arastéh K, Behrens G, Bergmann F, Bickel M, Bittner D, Bogner J, Brockmeyer N, Darrelmann N, Deja M, Doerler M, Esser S, Faetkenheuer G, Fenske S, Gajetzki S, Gey D, Goebel F, Gorriahn D, Harrer E, Harrer T, Hartl H, Hartmann M, Heesch S, Jakob W, Jäger H, Klinker H, Kremer G, Ludwig C, Mantzsch K, Mauss S, Meurer A, Niedermeier A, Pittack N, Plettenberg A, Potthoff A, Probst M, Rittweger M, Rockstroh J, Ross B, Rotty J, Rund E, Ruzicka T, Schmidt R, Schmutz G, Schnaitmann E, Schuster D, Sehr T, Spaeth B, Staszewski S, Stellbrink HJ, Stephan C, Stockey T, Stoehr A, Tillmann K, Trein A, Vaeth T, Vogel M, Wasmuth J, Wengenroth C, Winzer R, Wolf E, Mulcahy F, Reidy Dl, Cohen Y, Drora G, Eliezer I, Godo O, Kedem E, Magen E, Mamorsky M, Pollack S, Sthoeger Z, Vered H, Yust I, Aiuti F, Bechi M, Bergamasco A, Bertelli D, Bruno R, Butini L, Cagliuso M, Carosi G, Casari S, Chrysoula V, Cologni G, Conti V, Costantini A, Corpolongo A, D'Offizi G, Gaiottino F, Di Pietro M, Esposito R, Filice G, Francesco M, Gianelli E, Graziella C, Magenta L, Martellotta F, Maserati R, Mazzotta F, Murdaca G, Nardini G, Nozza S, Puppo F, Pogliaghi M, Ripamonti D, Ronchetti C, Rusconi S, Rusconi V, Sacchi P, Silvia N, Suter F, Tambussi G, Uglietti A, Vechi M, Vergani B, Vichi F, Vitiello P, Iwamoto A, Kikuchi Y, Miyazaki N, Mori M, Nakamura T, Odawara T, Oka S, Shirasaka T, Tabata M, Takano M, Ueta C, Watanabe D, Yamamoto Y, Erradey I, Himmich H, Marhoum El Filali K, Blok W, van Boxtel R, Brinkman H Doevelaar K, van Eeden A, Grijsen M, Groot M, Juttmann J, Kuipers M, Ligthart S, van der Meulen P, Lange J, Langebeek N, Ligthart S, Reiss P, Richter C, Schoemaker M, Schrijnders-Gudde L, Septer-Bijleveld E, Sprenger H, Vermeulen J, ten Kate R, van de Ven B, Bruun J, Kvale D, Maeland A, Bakowska E, Beniowski M, Boron-Kaczmarska A, Gasiorowski J, Horban A, Inglot M, Knysz B, Mularska E, Parczewski M, Pynka M, Rymer W, Szymczak A, De Salles Amorim C, Basso C, Flint S, Kallas E, Levi G, Lewi D, Pereira L Jr, da Silva M, Souza T, Toscano A, Valadas E, Vaz Pinto I, Chia E, Foo E, Karim F, Lim PL, Panchalingam A, Paton N, Quek A, Alcázar-Caballero R, Aragon E, Arnaiz J, Arribas J, Arrizabalaga J, de Barron X, Blanco F, Bouza E, Bravo I, Calvo S, Carbonero L, Carpena I, Castro M, Clotet B, Cortes L, del Toro M, Domingo P, Elias M, Espinosa J, Estrada V, Fernandez-Cruz E, Fernández P, Freud H, Fuster M, Garcia A, Garcia G, Garrido R, Gatell J, Gijón P, Gonzalez-García J, Gil I, González A, González-Lahoz J, López Grosso P, Gutierrez M, Guzmán E, Iribarren J, Jiménez M, Jou A, Juega J, Lopez J, Lopez P, Lozano F, Martín-Carbonero L, Mata R, Mateo G, Menasalvas A, Mirelles C, de Miguel Prieto J, Montes M, Moreno A, Moreno J, Moreno V, Muñoz R, Ocampo A, Ortega E, Ortiz L, Padilla B, Parras A, Paster A, Pedreira J, Peña J, Perea R, Portas B, Puig J, Pulido F, Rebollar M, de Rivera J, Roca V, Rodríguez- Arrondo F, Rubio R, Santos J, Sanz J, Sebastian G, Segovia M, Soriano V, Tamargo L, Varea S, Viciana P, von Wichmann M, Bratt G, 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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the general population, raised levels of inflammatory markers are stronger predictors of fatal than nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. People with HIV have elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and D-dimer; HIV-induced activation of inflammatory and coagulation pathways may be responsible for their greater risk of CVD. Whether the enhanced inflammation and coagulation associated with HIV is associated with more fatal CVD events has not been investigated.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Biomarkers were measured at baseline for 9764 patients with HIV and no history of CVD. Of these patients, we focus on the 288 that experienced either a fatal (n=74) or nonfatal (n=214) CVD event over a median of 5 years. Odds ratios (ORs) (fatal versus nonfatal CVD) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) associated with a doubling of IL-6, D-dimer, hsCRP, and a 1-unit increase in an IL-6 and D-dimer score, measured a median of 2.6 years before the event, were 1.39 (1.07 to 1.79), 1.40 (1.10 to 1.78), 1.09 (0.93 to 1.28), and 1.51 (1.15 to 1.97), respectively. Of the 214 patients with nonfatal CVD, 23 died during follow-up. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for all-cause mortality were 1.72 (1.28 to 2.31), 1.73 (1.27 to 2.36), 1.44 (1.15 to 1.80), and 1.88 (1.39 to 2.55), respectively, for IL-6, D-dimer, hsCRP, and the IL-6 and D-dimer score.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher IL-6 and D-dimer levels reflecting enhanced inflammation and coagulation associated with HIV are associated with a greater risk of fatal CVD and a greater risk of death after a nonfatal CVD event.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL:

http://www.clinicaltrial.gov Unique identifier: SMART: NCT00027352, ESPRIT: NCT00004978, SILCAAT: NCT00013611.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; inflammation

PMID:
24870935
PMCID:
PMC4309077
DOI:
10.1161/JAHA.114.000844
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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