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Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:981581. doi: 10.1155/2014/981581. Epub 2014 Apr 28.

Vitamin D Binding Protein Impact on 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels under Different Physiologic and Pathologic Conditions.

Author information

1
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA.
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Abstract

There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide, but how to define vitamin D deficiency is controversial. Currently, the plasma concentration of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is considered an indicator of vitamin D status. The free hormone hypothesis states that protein-bound hormones are inactive while unbound hormones are free to exert biological activity. The majority of circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D is tightly bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), 10-15% is bound to albumin, and less than 1% of circulating vitamin D exists in an unbound form. While DBP is relatively stable in most healthy populations, a recent study showed that there are gene polymorphisms associated with race and ethnicity that could alter DBP levels and binding affinity. Furthermore, in some clinical situations, total vitamin D levels are altered and knowing whether DBP is also altered may have treatment implications. The aim of this review is to assess DBP concentration in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We suggest that DBP should be considered in the interpretation of 25(OH)D levels.

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