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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014 Jun;133(6):1344-53. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000000232.

Engineered nasal cartilage by cell homing: a model for augmentative and reconstructive rhinoplasty.

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New York, N.Y. From the Center for Craniofacial Regeneration and the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center; and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University.



Current augmentative and reconstructive rhinoplasties use auto logous tissue grafts or synthetic bioinert materials to repair nasal trauma or attain an aesthetic shape. Autologous grafts are associated with donor-site trauma and morbidity. Synthetic materials are widely used but often yield an unnatural appearance and are prone to infection or dislocation. There is an acute clinical need for the generation of native tissues to serve as rhinoplasty grafts without the undesirable features that are associated with autologous grafts or current synthetic materials.


Bioactive scaffolds were developed that not only recruited cells in the nasal dorsum in vivo, but also induced chondrogenesis of the recruited cells. Bilayered scaffolds were fabricated with alginate-containing gelatin microspheres encapsulating cytokines atop a porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) base. Microspheres were fabricated to contain recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3 at doses of 200, 500, or 1000 ng, with phosphate-buffered saline-loaded microspheres used as a control. A rat model of augmentation rhinoplasty was created by implanting scaffolds atop the native nasal cartilage surface that was scored to induce cell migration. Tissue formation and chondrogenesis in the scaffolds were evaluated by image analysis and histologic staining with hematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, Verhoeff elastic-van Geison, and aggrecan immunohistochemistry.


Sustained release of increasing doses of transforming growth factor-β3 for up to the tested 10 weeks promoted orthotopic cartilage-like tissue formation in a dose-dependent manner.


These findings represent the first attempt to engineer cartilage tissue by cell homing for rhinoplasty, and could potentially serve as an alternative material for augmentative and reconstructive rhinoplasty.

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