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J Endod. 2014 Jun;40(6):818-24. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.09.041. Epub 2013 Nov 16.

Role of the P38 pathway in calcium silicate cement-induced cell viability and angiogenesis-related proteins of human dental pulp cell in vitro.

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School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan; Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan.
Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:



This study investigated that calcium silicate (CS) cement may influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, in particular p38. We have addressed that Si ion released from CS cement can influence osmolarity in the medium, which may stimulate hDPC viability and induce angiogenesis-related proteins through stimulation of the nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide secretion.


The hDPCs was cultured with CS cement to angiogenesis. Then, cell viability, ion concentration, osmolality, nitric oxide secretion, the von Willebrand factor, and angiopoietin-1 protein expression were examined.


CS cement elicited a significant (P < .05) increase of 15%, 20%, and 19% in viability compared with control on days 1, 3, and 5 of cell seeding, respectively. The CS cement consumed calcium and phosphate ions and released more Si ions in medium. The CS significantly (P < .05) increased the osmolality to 303.52 ± 3.07, 315.03 ± 5.80, and 319.95 ± 4.68 mOsm/kg for 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively. P38 was activated through phosphorylation; the phosphorylation kinase was investigated in our cell system after culture with CS cement. Moreover, expression levels for angiopoietin-1 and von Willebrand factor in hDPCs on CS cement were higher than those of the CS + p38 inhibitor (SB203580) group (P < .05) at all of the analyzed time points.


This study showed that CS cement was able to activate the p38 pathway in hDPCs cultured in vitro. Moreover, Si was shown to increase osmolality required to facilitate the angiogenic differentiation of hDPCs via the p38 signaling pathway. When the p38 pathway was blocked by SB203580, the angiogenic-dependent protein secretion was decreased. These findings verified that the p38 pathway plays a key role in regulating the angiogenic behavior of hDPCs cultured on CS cement.


Angiogenesis; calcium silicate cement; human dental pulp cell; osmolality; p38/MAPK

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