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Environ Toxicol. 2015 Nov;30(11):1322-30. doi: 10.1002/tox.22003. Epub 2014 May 24.

Alpha-phellandrene-induced DNA damage and affect DNA repair protein expression in WEHI-3 murine leukemia cells in vitro.

Author information

1
Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.
2
Division of Cardiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.
3
Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, 711, Taiwan.
4
Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.
5
Department of Chinese Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taichung, 403, Taiwan.
6
School of Chinese Medicine for Post-Baccalaureate, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan.
7
Department of Chinese Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung, 82445, Taiwan.
8
Department of Physiology, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.
9
Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, 413, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Abstract

Although there are few reports regarding α-phellandrene (α-PA), a natural compound from Schinus molle L. essential oil, there is no report to show that α-PA induced DNA damage and affected DNA repair associated protein expression. Herein, we investigated the effects of α-PA on DNA damage and repair associated protein expression in murine leukemia cells. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the effects of α-PA on total cell viability and the results indicated that α-PA induced cell death. Comet assay and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining were used for measuring DNA damage and condensation, respectively, and the results indicated that α-PA induced DNA damage and condensation in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA gel electrophoresis was used to examine the DNA damage and the results showed that α-PA induced DNA damage in WEHI-3 cells. Western blotting assay was used to measure the changes of DNA damage and repair associated protein expression and the results indicated that α-PA increased p-p53, p-H2A.X, 14-3-3-σ, and MDC1 protein expression but inhibited the protein of p53, MGMT, DNA-PK, and BRCA-1.

KEYWORDS:

DNA damage and repair; WEHI-3 leukemia cells; α-phellandrene

PMID:
24861204
DOI:
10.1002/tox.22003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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