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Curr Trop Med Rep. 2014 Mar 28;1:119-128. eCollection 2014.

Histoplasmosis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Review of New Developments and Remaining Gaps.

Author information

1
Inserm CIC 1424, Centre d'Investigation Clinique Antilles-Guyane, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, avenue des flamboyants, BP 6006, 97 300 Cayenne, France ; UAG EA 3593, Epidémiologie des Parasitoses et des Mycoses Tropicales, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Cayenne, France.
2
UAG EA 3593, Epidémiologie des Parasitoses et des Mycoses Tropicales, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Cayenne, France ; Laboratoire Hospitalo-Universitaire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, Cayenne, France.
3
UAG EA 3593, Epidémiologie des Parasitoses et des Mycoses Tropicales, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Cayenne, France ; Service de Dermatologie Vénérologie,, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, Cayenne, France.

Abstract

Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for histoplasmosis, a fungal disease with worldwide distribution that can affect both immunocompromised and imunocompetent individuals. During the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, morbidity and mortality due to histoplasmosis remained a public heatlh problem in low-income and high-income countries. The true burden of HIV-associated histoplasmosis is either not fully known or neglected since it is not a notifiable disease. Progress has been made in DNA patterns of strains and understanding of pathogenesis, and hopefully these will help identify new therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, histoplasmosis is still widely mistaken for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, leading to numerous avoidable deaths, even if they are easily distinguishable. The new diagnostic tools and therapeutics developments have still not been made available in most endemic regions. Still, recent developments are promising because of their good clinical characteristics and also because they will be commercially available and affordable. This review of published data and gaps may help define and guide future research.

KEYWORDS:

AIDS; Fungal disease; HIV; Histoplasma; Histoplasmosis; Tropical medicine; Tropical mycosis

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